Tuesday, May 25, 2021

Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara - Potents for a New Interpretation

 Social Change and Nyaya(Equality), Tyaga(Duty) and Bhaichara(Kinship)


Every movement for social change over the past 2500 years has been initiated by a fresh interpretation of the concepts of nyaya(rationality & equality), tyaga(duty) and bhaichara(kinship with all life forms) in the realm of ordinary life practice. Such interpretations were put forth by gurus and sants/swamis(saints); ‘accepted and absorbed’ into the belief systems and life practices of ordinary people. Their lives thereafter underwent changes appropriate to the sustenance of such changes. Most often, this led to the ‘formation’ of different sects within the all pervading sanatana dharma that characterized Indian society.


Such interpretations can be seen, for example, in the teachings of the Buddha and Mahavira and later in the teachings of Basaveswara , Guru Gobind Singh and many others. More recently we find that Mahatma Gandhi too, offered a new ‘talisman’ for ordinary life practices through his interpretations of these concepts. All these ideas/interpretations formed the bases of mass ‘movements’ and we know, historically, that they did lead to social change. However, with the onslaught of capitalist mode of production, and the concomitant ‘destruction’ of the natural environment, such changes in society and life-style have been under severe pressure and the very sustenance of the belief system and social formations, that those interpretations engendered, have been pushed to the brink of ‘extinction’.


Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara in the context of the Knowledge Movement


Premise:

All characteristics of inter-relationships are primarily, and in the main, determined by interactions between individuals and between communities/collectives, and governed by the evolving worldview that determines these relationships. Concepts of equality(nyaya), fraternity(bhaichara) and collective governance(swarajya) evolve through such economic, social and cultural exchanges . The contemporary capitalist-market worldview, that influences ALL relationships today, will have to make space for Knowledge-based (Lokavidya) dharma which will henceforth influence ALL relationships within and without Lokavidya Samaj. This is the basis and agenda of the movement for social change.


The concept of dharma has NO equivalent in non Lokavidya-based societies and it has, therefore, been subject to 'silencing' by commentators and analysts trained in other knowledge traditions and influenced (unconsciously perhaps) by the prevalent market-driven values. Lokavidya dharma should incorporate Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara as axiomatic principles.

Public discourse should be in the vocabulary of vidya and dharma ; their meaning is commonly understood by ordinary people albeit in different ways. Such understanding is not in conflict with principles of Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara and should now serve as the basis of establishing a system of interactions for the protection of fundamental right to life and livelihood, in a globalised Knowledge-based society.


  1. The march towards the establishment of an order, based on Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara, begins, in this 'Knowledge era', with ensuring the Right of individuals, individually and collectively, to live by and base their livelihoods on the Knowledge they possess and practice.


  1. The aspect of inequality, arising from the exchange-activity process, has to be addressed by redefining the concept of value of a commodity/service, by incorporating the idea of knowledge-based value. In a knowledge paradigm, that recognises the fundamental equality (in utility) between all knowledge and knowledge-based activity, the sustenance of a concept of knowledge-based value and the social and economic equality that it engenders, will not prove beyond the new political imagination, that will evolve in society.


[ Value:The value of a commodity ( this term to denotes ALL goods and services which are produced by and through human labour for self-consumption and/or exchange) is neither pre-determinable nor pre-assignable i.e. there is no intrinsic value to any commodity. A value accrues to a commodity as a result of it being essential to life and/or during the process of social exchange and is by nature a dynamic variable.]



Ideas on Knowledge equality- an important aspect of Nyaya


1. from Basaveshwara:


The inequality, which Basaweshwara lamented, was not the inequality of personal endowments, but of the social, economic, religious and spiritual practices which created inequality and came in the way of development of individual personality. He went to the very roots of the state of nature in attacking the inequality created by human beings.


Basaveshwara gave a concrete meaning to the conception of work or occupation in the form of

Kayaka which is regarded as an important means for the removal of all inequalities–economic, social,

religious and spiritual. Kayaka is a spiritual view of labor and not merely a materialistic view. Every

kind of labour is looked upon with high honor, dignity and spiritual significance. Kayaka doesn't

encourage amassing wealth or hoarding of money. It is NOT motivated by profit.



2. from Gandhiji's “Autobiography” summarising Ruskin's “Unto This Last”:


“A lawyer's work has the same value as the barber's, as all have the right of earning their livelihood

from their work”

“ A life of labour i.e the life of the tiller of the soil and the handicraftsman is the life worth living”

“ The right system respecting all labour is, that it should be paid at a fixed rate; but the good

workman employed, and the bad workman unemployed”

“The equality of wages, then, being the first object towards which we have to discover the road, the

second is that of maintaining constant numbers of workmen in employment, whatever may be the

accidental demand for the article they produce”



3. from Dharampalji's “Essays on Tradition, Recovery and Freedom” summarising the Chengalpattu

data:


“An elaborately worked out system of sharing of the produce of the region also seems to ensured fairly equal distribution of economic and cultural prosperity among the various communities and occupational groups that inhabited the region”




4. from Paul Mason’s article in The Guardian titled” The end of Capitalism has begun”


A study for the SAS Institute in 2013 found that, in order to put a value on data, neither the cost of gathering it, nor the market value or the future income from it could be adequately calculated. Only through a form of accounting that included non-economic benefits, and risks, could companies actually explain to their shareholders what their data was really worth. ...The knowledge content of products is becoming more valuable than the physical things that are used to produce them. But it is a value measured as usefulness, not exchange or asset value... (but) information as a social good, free at the point of use, incapable of being owned or exploited or priced.




Ideas on Tyaga or Fundamental Duty

(Tyaga is neither renunciation nor charitable donation/alms-giving)



1.from Tirukkural (Valluvar's instructive text focused on wisdom, justice, and ethics.)


Goals of poruḷ (wealth obtained in ethical manner) and inbam( refers to pleasure and fulfilment of

one's desires) are desirable, yet both need to be regulated by aṟam(dharma). Valluvar holds that aṟam

is common for all, irrespective of whether the person is a bearer of palanquin or the rider in it.



2. from the Bhagavad Gita


Karmanye Vadhikaraste ma phaleshu kadhachana OR "Perform your duty but do not have any

expectation of the fruits". It speaks of being dedicated to your job, your art, your science (your

livelihood practice)as a fundamental duty. The Indian tradition also holds that there exists an inherent

tension between artha and kama. These must be pursued with "action with renunciation" (Nishkama

Karma), that is, one must act (do one’s duty)without craving in order to resolve this tension



3. from Basaveshwara:



Kayaka is to be done in the spirit of Dashooha. Dasooha meant working hard for one's livelihood and

for the maintenance of society. In his view, a dasohi should consider himself, but a servant of society. Therefore, Dasoha in principle assumed that what belongs to God must return to Him and what came from society should be given back by way of selfless service.

Kayaka is a duty by which each one has to maintain oneself, and render its proceeds to the welfare of all. As per the principle of Dashooha, since every one earns his minimum requirement through Kayaka he contributes the rest of his labour to the society rather than accumulating personal wealth. Therefore, Kayaka does not encourage the amassing of wealth if it is done in the spirit of Dashooha, Human beings are equal by nature in their wisdom and virtues, that should be maintained accordingly.



4. from Guru Gobind Singh


Dharam dee kirat karnee – Do your work(livelihood practice) as a duty

Dasvand denaa – Donate a tenth share of your earnings.

Langar Parshaad ik ras vartaaunaa – Serve Langar prashad(food) with impartiality.


Ideas on Bhaichara or Kinship


1. from the Maha Upanishad


Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam meaning "the world is one family".

The Gandhian vision of holistic development and respect for all forms of life; nonviolent conflict

resolution embedded in the acceptance of nonviolence both as a creed and strategy; were an extension

of the ancient concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam


2. from the teachings of Mahavira


A central tenet of his teaching was a renunciation of violence in all its forms and a concern for all

forms of life; that all living beings, irrespective of their size, shape, and form how spiritually

developed or undeveloped, are equal and we should love and respect them.



Social action for Change


It does not take much to see that ALL the great movements for Social change, in different parts of the

world, have been based on teachings (new interpretations of Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara),such as the

ones quoted above, and have led to new social(religious) groupings based on belief systems which

have incorporated the essence of these teachings. These movements have been sustained through

centuries by the tyaga that dominated(and governed) these social groups; that is until the

onslaught’(both ontological and ethical) of modern western Science and Technology, especially and

very perceivably by the advent of the globalized capitalist market system.



Climate Change, a fallout of the Capitalist Development paradigm, is directly linked to the absence,

neglect or down-grading of Bhaichara (as enshrined in various belief systems ). Environmental

Movements against the ill-effects of Climate Change have , in almost all cases, re-emphasized the

understanding of Bhaichara; that was a given in the World of the Tribal/Indigenous Peoples of the

World.


It appears that the space and opportunity for redefining Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara has been opened

up by various peoples’ movements across the world. In India too, the current Farmers’ movement has

provided a space for this redefinition by ordinary people who form the bulk of this non-violent mass

movement. The reason for stating this is that this ‘movement’ has been going on for the past 6 months

attended largely by small farmer families from Punjab, Haryana and UP. The Langar, local

arrangements for stay & facilities and healthcare have been provided for by bigger farmers and their

organisations. It is my opinion, that the urge to stay together seems to be the overarching belief that the

(Khalsa)leadership is being guided by the teachings of Guru Gobind Singh: of grow food (as a

duty), share food through Langar(Bhaichara) while ‘fighting’ for justice(Nyaya) for the entire

community (that is dependent on agriculture). Those teachings will certainly be reset to the

contemporary context in order to sustain the movement, but this provides the hope that a new

interpretation of Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara could well emerge and be ‘accepted’ by ordinary people,

through this movement.


Krishnarajulu

25 May 2021

Thursday, May 13, 2021

Agenda for a Knowledge Politics

 Sunil Sahasrabudhey,   6 May, 2021              Posted at 7 pm on 13th May 2021

In recent elections the state level parties have performed very well , namely, Trinamool Congress in West Bengal, DMK in Tamil Nadu and the Left Front in Kerala. Local body elections in Uttar Pradesh have also given a general mandate against BJP. The idea of coordination and cooperation between regional political formations to stand up to, and emerge as an alternative to, the domineering positioning of the Central Government has started gaining some ground. This particularly so in the context of 2024 General Elections. Covid -19 and its spread was already an issue on which the Central Government was being heavily criticized. The focus is both on irresponsibility and incompetence. Corruption is soon likely to emerge on a big scale.  Another major issue which has suffered a partial eclipse because of these events is the farmers’ movement.  These three seem to define the present political agenda of the nation. A discussion is needed to figure out whether this situation creates a fresh and robust occasion to talk about and do something significant for bringing into the public domain the idea of a knowledge politics. The following points may help give a start to our discussion on this.

1.   How far such a political agenda can give space to basic issues of poverty, unemployment, disparity, social hierarchy, communalism, etc.

2.   How should this political agenda possibly be seen from a knowledge point of view. For example  -

·      Is it opportune now to put forward the thesis that governance ought to be at the State level, Centre being a coordinating agency? Is it opportune and correct to raise the question of education to be entirely the state subject. Lokavidya argument may be integrated with this.

·      If there is re-emergence of the identity (linguistic, cultural, historical) issue through these elections, it may be an occasion to formulate the concept of identity in knowledge terms, through mainly, formulating the lokavidya-knowledge discourse in the language of the region. 

·      Should there be a campaign to promote Loka Swasthya Paramparas in handling the Covid – 19.

·      Do we see openings for a campaign on Food Sovereignty meaning that agriculture should be a state subject and the state governments should facilitate farmers’ and artisans’  control over the local resources with the rider that farmers shall be responsible for sufficient availability of food in the region. If clothing, housing and general services (repairs included) is added, an imagination of swaraj comes forth.


Wednesday, May 12, 2021

न्याय त्याग और भाईचारा : ललित कुमार कौल

 

न्याय त्याग और भाईचारा

                                                                                                            ललित कुमार कौल

मेरा जन्म किसी एक परिवार में हुआ ; किसी एक गाँव या शहर में ; किसी एक देश में! हजारों गाँव और सेंकड़ों देश इस धरती पर मोजूद हैं! जिस गाँव में मेरा जन्म हुआ उसमें कई परिवार बसते हैं जो उस गाँव के समाज का एक हिस्सा हैं! हर परिवार का अपना अपना व्यवसाय/पेशा है या फिर कई परिवारों की जीविका एक ही जैसी हो, यह संभव है! हर गांव/शहर /देश वासी की बुद्धि या फिर शारीरिक और मानसिक क्षमताएं एक जैसी नहीं हैं ; शकल भी एक जैसी नहीं है! एक परिवार के सदस्यों के बीच भी इसी प्रकार के अंतर दिखते हैं! यहाँ तक कि दो भाइयों या भाई – बहन के स्वभाव में; रुचियों में; प्रवृति में ;सही-गलत आदि की समझ में; भी अंतर देखने को मिलता है! इंसानों और अन्य जीवों में ऐसा कोनसा गुण है जो एक दुसरे से प्रथक नहीं है? ऐसे में किस आधार पे बंधुत्व की बात की जाए? अपनेपन के एहसास बिना त्याग की भावना संभव नहीं! भौतिकवादी दुनिया में त्याग और भाईचारा जैसे जीवन मूल्यों का प्रभुत्व होना कुछ मुशकिल लगता है!

इंसानी रिश्तों का आधार:

प्यार मोहब्बत आदर इन सब की गहराई वक़्त के साथ रिश्तों के बीच बदलती रहती है और ऐसा होना स्वाभाविक है; ऐसा मेरा मानना है! जो नहीं बदलता वह एक इंसान का दूसरे के प्रति आभार / कृतज्ञता है, यदि उसके चरित्र या स्वभाव में ऐसा  अंश है! रिश्ता कोई भी हो नहीं टिक पाता यदि आभार का अंश अनुपस्थित हो; बाल बच्चे अपनी गृहस्ती सँभालते हुए माँ बाप के साथ किस प्रकार का रिश्ता निभायेंगे यह उनका माँ बाप के प्रति आभार तय करने वाला है क्योंकि दो पीड़ियों के बीच वैचारिक और नज़रिये के भेद भाव तो स्वाभाविक हैं! यदि बच्चों के जहन में यह जब्त है कि न केवल उनका वज़ूद पर उनकी उप्लब्दियाँ भी माँ बाप के निजी बलिदानों के कारण है तो भेद भाव कितने ही तीव्र क्यों न हों साफ़ सुथरा रिश्ता बना रहता है! माँ बाप कितने गरीब या अमीर रहे हों इससे रिश्तों में कोई फर्क नहीं पड़ता! भौतिकवादी दुनिया में थोड़ी बहुत आध्यात्मिकता नज़र आती है!

पारस्परिक स्वार्थ भी रिश्तों को जोड़ता है! सार्वजनिक या निजी इकाई जिनमें हर जाति वर्ग मज़हब के लोग काम करते हैं  पारस्परिक स्वार्थ के कारण मिलझुल के हर काम को अंजाम देते हैं क्योंकि सबकी जीविका का प्रश्न होता है! काफ़िर और मोमीन दलित और उच्च वर्ग मर्द और औरत गोरा और काला ऐसे सब भेद भाव इकाई के भीतर नहीं रहते भले ही इकाई के बहार प्रचलित हों! जीविका का स्वार्थ! इस आपसी व्यवहार में प्यार मोहब्बत इंसानियत इज्ज़त जैसे मूल्य किस हद तक मोजूद रहते हैं इसका अंदाजा लगाना मुशकिल है ! लेकिन जब कभी दंगे फसाद समाज में होते हैं तो दंगों का विश्लेषण वर्ग जाति और मज़हब के आधार पे ही होता है! पारस्परिक स्वार्थ के आभाव में भौतिकवादी दुनिया में इंसानी रिश्तों का  कोई आधार नहीं!

यदि होता तो आर्थिक कठिनाइयों के बावजूद किसान आत्महत्या नहीं करते क्योंकि किसान वर्ग एक जुट होकर संकट में गिरे हुए किसान की सहायता करते या फिर उस क्षेत्र से जुड़े समाज के अन्य लोग मदद करते; मदद करने का तात्पर्य यह है कि लोन की राशि अदा करते हुए पीड़ित किसान से सरल किस्तों में दीगयी राशी के भुगतान की व्यवस्था मिलजुल के तय करते! लेकिन ऐसा न हों पाया क्योंकि बंधुत्व का कोई आधार न बन पाया; कोई यह तर्क न दे कि पूरे समाज में लोन का कुछ भी हिस्सा वापस देने की क्षमता ना थी; इंसानियत की बात न करिये क्योंकि बात आध्यात्मिकता की नहीं हो रही!

ऐसा भी देखने को मिलता है कि दो भाई एक ही छत के अंदर अलग अलग अपना परिवार चलाते हैं! दोनों के बच्चे लिखाई  पढ़ाई में एक सामान हैं लेकिन आर्थिक असमानता कारणवश एक भाई के बच्चे पेशेवर विद्यालयों में दाखला नहीं लेपाते! यदि अपनेपन का एहसास अधिक संपन्न भाई में हो तो वह दुसरे के साथ मिलके कोई न कोई रास्ता निकालता है ताकि बच्चों की पढ़ाई में किसी प्रकार की रुकावट न आये; ऐसी पहल में  कहीं न कहीं त्याग का अंश है और जिसका वजूद अपनेपन के एहसास में है!

क्या हम यह कह सकते हैं कि यदि अपनापन और  कृतज्ञता मोजूद हो तो न्याय मिल ही जाता है? यदि हाँ , फिर भी न्याय का मामला पुर्णतः हल नहीं हुआ क्योंकि यह तो किसी एक के स्वभाव पे आश्रित हो गया! तो प्रश्न यह है कि : किस प्रकार से मानव जाति में प्यार मोहब्बत आदर कृतज्ञता और अपनेपन का बीज बोया जाए ताकि न्याय सार्वजानिक हो? क्या यह संभव है?

हक और फ़र्ज़ (धर्म):

प्यार मोहब्बत आदर कृतज्ञता और अपनापन; इन सब का एहसास होना या न होना; अधिक या कम मात्रा में होना; इंसान की  मूल प्रवृति के विषय हैं! बाहरी दुनिया का इन सब पे कोई अधिकार नहीं है; एक इंसान समाज में किस प्रकार का व्यवहार और कार्य करेगा यह पुर्णतः उसकी मूल प्रवृति निर्धारित करेगी यदि समाज में किसी प्रकार का कोई अंकुश न हो! आधुनिक समाजों में केवल इंसानों के हक और उन्हें सुरक्षित करने की चर्चा होती है; समाज के प्रति इंसानों के धर्म की कोई चर्चा नहीं होती!

सरकार की नीतियों का विरोध करने का हक सबको है और उसके साथ साथ सार्वजानिक सम्पति को तहस नहस करने का हक भी लोगों ने धारण कर लिया है! सार्वजनिक सम्पतियों की देख भाल करने का धर्म किसी का नहीं है; उनका भी नहीं जिन्हें इस काम के लिए मासिक वेतन मिलता है!

तो अपना हक पाने का संकल्प लेकर, निजी जिम्मेदारियों से बेखबर, समाज देश या फिर दुनिया में यात्रा करने वालों के लिए कोई मर्यादा रेखा नहीं होती! निजी स्वार्थ को फलित करने का हक सभ्य समाज के हर मूल्य को कुचल देता है, कानूनी व्यवस्था इसे संज्ञान में ले या न ले इसका बुरा असर तो समाज पे पड़ता ही है क्योंकि एक उधाहरण  इसके सामने पेश होती है , कि ऐसा भी संभव है!

हर एक को अपनी ज़िन्दगी अपने तरीक़े से जीने का हक है; निजी आकांक्षाओं की पूर्ति करने का हक है; इस छूट की कोई इंतिहा नहीं है ; कोई भी ऐसा रास्ता अपनाया जा सकता जिससे निजी आकांक्षाओं की पूर्ति  हो! ऐसे वातावरण में मूल्यों का  गतिशील होना स्वाभाविक है क्योंकि सब के सब हक की पूर्ति के आधीन हैं !

परिवार समाज की मौलिक इकाई है! परिवार बिखर जायें तो समाज के अस्तित्व क्या औचित्य?

यह धारणा - कि हर इंसान खुद का मालिक है, जो चाहे कर सकता है यदि वह संकल्प कर ले – सही नहीं है क्योंकि इंसानी उपलब्धियों में अवश्य ही समाज (परिवार) का योगदान निहित है जो धर्म निभाने स्वरुप है! प्रश्न जो हर आकांक्षी को खुद से पूछना चाहिए : जिन्होंने निजी धर्म निभाते हुए मेरी आकांक्षाओं की पूर्ति में मेरी सहायता की, क्या मेरा उनके प्रति कोई धर्म नहीं है? किसी का धर्म किसी की हक पूर्ति के काम आया बिलकुल वैसे ही जैसे आज के धर्म निभाने वालों की हक पूर्ति के लिए किसी औरों का धर्म काम आया होगा! यदि हक के पाते पाते धर्म की भूमिका को नज़रंदाज़ ना किया जाए तो समाज में न्याय अवश्य होगा!

निजी उपलब्धियों का श्रेय यदि किसी अनुपात में समाज और उसकी संस्थाओं को दिया जाये तो इससे बड़कर मिसाल कृतज्ञता की नहीं हो सकती और यही गुण इंसान को समाज के साथ जोड़ता है!

इंसानों की निजी मूल प्रवृति कैसी भी हों, धर्म का बीज उनके मन और चेतना में बोना तो असंभव कार्य नहीं लगता बशर्ते परिवार के बुजुर्ग (दादा दादी माँ बाप आदि) अंदरूनी मसले हल करने में धर्म का पालन करें! बच्चों का पहला और बहुत महत्वपूर्ण विद्यालय उनका घर है; अच्छे बुरे संस्कार , सही गलत की समझ आदि  सब घर के बुजुर्गों से मिलते हैं! आज की दुनिया में बुजुर्गों के आचरण पर भी बहुत बड़ा प्रश्न चिन्ह है!

जो भी हो धर्म के पालन में ही आशा की किरण दिखती है जब बात न्याय त्याग और भाईचारे की हो!

Wednesday, March 24, 2021

Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichara

 Yesterday was the day of martyrdom of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru. It is always a very big occasion to seek invigoration from positive social values whose great source it constitutes. It was also Dr. Lohiya’s jayanti. His followers call him ‘aadi vidrohi’ and others do not object to it. We need to reflect deeply in the context of the ongoing farmers’ movement.

The farmers have rebelled since the imposition of Zamindaari by the British through the Permanent Settlement Act back in 1770s. There have been innumerable peasant struggles and movements since then. The methods and forms of enslaving the peasants and looting their produce have kept changing. The government and the corporations have now come up with the three new farm laws relating to agricultural production, exchange and storage and doing away with the MSP to loot farmers’ knowledge and labour. They want to appropriate land and exercise complete control on farmers’ lives. The farmers are fighting and other sections of population have come forward in a big way to support them. They seem to be taking the Nation to a promising future. Martyrdom of hundreds and express sacrifices in a highly fraternal atmosphere seem to be drawing new contours for us as a Nation and a society. Can we decipher it?
If we think in the context of the values like Nyaya, Tyaga and Bhaichaara ( न्याय, त्याग और भाईचारा) then we may understand what the farmer is saying. Farmers are great carriers of the traditions of this country. They retain the good and the desirable and enrich it with new experiences to create and recreate life incessantly.
‘Just’ is not separable from ‘logical’. A major aspect of Indian philosophical tradition known as ‘Nyaya Shastra’ is referred to as Indian Logic in modern scholarship. For women, peasants, artisans, daily service providers and adivasis, broadly speaking in ordinary life, ‘just’ and ‘logical’ or rational’ are not seen as separate entities. ‘Tyaga’(sacrifice) does not only mean ‘asanchay’(non-storage), giving one’s time to society is part of it. ‘Tyaga’ clears the way to free oneself from moha (greed) and aham (ego). It has its direct role also in regulation and governance of society. The stories of kings like Harshavardhan, Bhoja and Vikramaditya are not prevalent for no reason. Nyaya and Tyaga fuse to make clear the path of truth and knowledge.
Bhaichara is rooted deep in our tradition, in ways many of us may not be able to imagine. Before the British intervention there were spread all over the country villages known as ‘bhaichara villages’. In the South they were called ‘manyam villages’. The fertile lands of these villages were redistributed among the peasants’ households every few years. There the land revenue was small and they were models of self governance.
In the end only this that the farmers’ movement is telling the way to a ‘khushhaal samaj’(flourishing society). Farmers will be masters of land. They will decide what to do with it. And if they get a just price for their produce, things will change in a big way. It is known that when farmers get a better price for their produce, local markets buzz with activity. They flourish to everybody’s advantage there. It is in this that lie the roots of reconstructing a distributed and flourishing society. Centralized political power, big capital and big markets are the hurdles in such a path, they need to be confronted in the immediate space in the guidance of social values like bhaichara, tyaga and nyaya.

Sunil Sahasrabudhey
24 March 2021


न्याय, त्याग और भाईचारा
कल भगत सिंह, सुखदेव और राजगुरु की शहादत का दिन था . बहुत बड़ा दिन था. यह समाज में सकारात्मक मूल्यों के संचार का एक बहुत बड़ा स्रोत है. सोचने के लिए एक सहारा है. कल ही डा. लोहिया का भी जन्म दिन था. उनके अनुयायी उन्हें ‘आदि विद्रोही’ कहते हैं, बाकी लोग भी इस पर आपत्ति नहीं करते. कोई तो सबक लेना ही चाहिए. खासकर किसान आन्दोलन के सन्दर्भ में.
अंग्रेजों ने ज़मींदारी की व्यवस्था लागू की तबसे किसान विद्रोह कर रहा है. आन्दोलन कर रहा है. ज़मीन पर नियंत्रण और उसके फल की लूट के तरीके बदलते रहे हैं. सरकारें और पूँजी के बड़े घराने अब इन नए तीन कानूनों को बनाकर और एम.एस.पी. को वेदी पर चढ़ा कर किसान के ज्ञान और श्रम, उसकी ज़मीन और ज़िन्दगी पर क़ब्ज़ा करके लूट के नए पैमाने गढ़ना चाहते हैं. किसान लड़ रहा है और बड़ी तादाद में और लोग उसका साथ दे रहे हैं. देश के लिए कुछ अच्छा होने वाला है. सैंकड़ों लोगों की शहादत, आन्दोलन में दिन रात शामिल लोगों का त्याग और उनके बीच का भाईचारा देश के लिए एक नई इबारत लिख रहा है. क्या हम उसे पढ़ सकते हैं?
न्याय, त्याग और भाईचारा मोटे तौर पर वे मूल्य नज़र आ रहे हैं जिनके सन्दर्भ में सोचने से किसान की बात कुछ समझ में आ सकती है. किसान-समाज देश की परम्पराओं का बहुत बड़ा वाहक है. अच्छी बातें संजोकर रख लेता है और उसके सहारे जीवन का निर्माण और पुनर्निर्माण करता रहता है. न्याय से तर्क को अलग नहीं किया जा सकता. भारतीय दर्शन की ‘न्यायशास्त्र’ की धारा को आधुनिक पठन-पाठन में इन्डियन लाजिक के नाम से जाना जाता है. महिलाओं के लिए, किसानों, कारीगरों और आदिवासियों के लिए, मोटे तौर पर कहें तो, सामान्य जीवन में, न्यासंगत होने और तकर्संगत होने में फर्क नहीं किया जाता. त्याग का अर्थ केवल असंचय नहीं होता. अपना समय समाज के लिए देना उसका हिस्सा है. मोह और अहं से अधिकाधिक मुक्ति के लिए त्याग सक्षम रास्ता बनाता है. समाज के नियमन और शासन में भी इसकी प्रकट भूमिका रही है. हर्षवर्धन, भोज और विक्रमादित्य जैसे राजाओं की कहानियाँ अभी भी ऐसे ही नहीं सुनी और सुनाई जाती हैं. न्याय और त्याग का अद्भुत संगम है सत्य का मार्ग प्रशस्त करने में.
अंग्रेजों ने जो ज़मीन की व्यवस्थाएं बनाई, वो आज भी बनी हुई हैं. उन्होंने भाईचारे को पट्टीदारी में बदल दिया. क्या अद्भुत क्षय है समाज और उसके मूल्यों का ! किसान के अलावा और कौन हमें इस गहरे गड्ढ़े से बाहर निकाल सकता है ! अंग्रेजों के कब्जे के पहले भारत में काफी तादाद में ‘भाईचारा गाँव’ हुआ करते थे, दक्षिण में ये मन्यम गांवों के नाम से जाने जाते थे. इन गांवों में उपजाऊ ज़मीन का कुछ वर्षों की अवधि में गाँव के किसान परिवारों में पुनर्वितरण होता था. वहां राजस्व बहुत कम होता था और वे स्वशासन की प्रतिमूर्ति हुआ करते थे.
अंत में केवल इतना ही कि किसान आन्दोलन एक खुशहाल समाज की ओर बढ़ने के रास्ते बता रहा है. किसान ज़मीन का मालिक होगा, उस पर क्या करना वह खुद तय करेगा, और उसके उत्पाद को न्यायसंगत मूल्य मिलेगा तो बात बड़े पैमाने पर बदलेगी. सब जानते हैं की किसान के उत्पाद को जब मूल्य मिलता है तब स्थानीय और क्षेत्रीय बाजारों में बड़ी गति आ जाती है. इसी गति में समाज की पुनर्रचना और खुशहाल समाज की और बढ़ने के सूत्र निहित हैं. केन्द्रीय सत्ता, बड़ी पूँजी और बड़े बाज़ारों के मूल्य इस प्रक्रिया को रोकने वाले हैं, उनसे सामाजिक मूल्यों के स्तर पर मुकाबला करना होगा. भाईचारा, त्याग और न्याय वे सक्षम मूल्य हैं, जो हमें आगे बढ़ने की गति देंगे.

सुनील सहस्रबुद्धे
24 मार्च 2021


Friday, March 19, 2021

For The Alternative to Emerge : Lalit K Kaul

 

For The Alternative to Emerge 

(Technology & Automation is the Challenge)

                                                                                                                Lalit K Kaul

To start with it may be useful to state that self centeredness and self interest are the basis for the contemporary societies driven by materialism; the political leadership has been assiduously driving our society towards achieving more and more material gains as that is the main index for economic growth and when they talk about human resource development, it’s all for the purpose of attaining higher and higher economic status. Human development has become synonymous with economic development sans concerns for deteriorating value system, ethics and the means adopted to achieve the desired economic goals. To look for the much cherished ‘Human Angle’ in this jungle shall be at the cost of being designated as retrograde. To compete is the Mantra and those unable to do so are not worth their existence; never mind the absence of level playing field. How well versed one is with the technology and its usage decides the winner in the competition which is merciless; what to talk of those who could never become part of this modern set up. Those left behind- by design and not by choice- the pressure release valve has been the distribution system of doles like, cheap food grains, cheap housing, cheap toilets etc that not only is insulting to the very existence of this human specie the Creator endowed with ever evolving Mind, but enslaves the very life and its dynamics to the machinations of a privileged few. This is a Monster out to devour the very life it did not create.

For the class of hapless people, there is no choice but to appreciate whatever fell into their laps in the last 6 years as had not happened in the preceding 69 years because everybody wants to live, no matter how and why. For them, a Messiah has arrived and they intend to stand by Him as by doing so material benefits are accrued; who can have any complaint against them? This, in my opinion and understanding, is the ground reality and would continue to be unless a viable alternative emerges.

For any new world view/philosophy of life & living to emerge the greatest impediment as also the challenge is ‘Technology’ and its offspring ‘Automation’, both set to increase productivity (enhanced profits) no matter if millions go out of work and lose the opportunity to apply their minds to make their own choices and bear its consequences. Again the pressure release valve is: unemployment allowance; social security; national health scheme and public distribution system. So the message to a vast majority of people across the Globe is that ‘you are being taken care of to the extent that you may keep breathing’ while We, the manipulators, having nearly completely exhausted the resources of Mother Earth are, now, “exploring” Space to make Colonies in Mars/Moon and/or any habitable planet in the “neighbourhood” of Earth. The propaganda is so powerful that even the hapless is compelled to clap and admire the spectacular “progress” the “Mankind” has made since World War II. These hapless ones are so bewildered by the power of the Media & IT that they forget their pain & miseries and stay convinced that yes, indeed, they deserve the place they are in & continue to live in the fond hope that One Day their siblings/ grand siblings/ great grand siblings shall make it to the members of the ‘enlightened’ society which is in the process of conquering Space.

Those who look outwards; how to make them look inwards? In a situation where an individual’s progress in life is determined by the fact whether he/she could make it to a city life starting from the native village; make it to the US or Europe, UK having got educated in professional institutions in India. Only if technology is brought to the door steps of a village, migration to towns & cities may start diminishing. In the neighbourhood of villages with the availability of barren lands or by the process of acquiring agriculture lands (due compensation as per the Act as amended by the SC), large scale investments can pour in to raise capital intensive industries which will absorb the locals    (with SSC certificate) for menial jobs & those decorated with certificate courses with some artisan kind of jobs; who would object? Who would object to availing a chance to go through the Gateway leading to “world of learned people” in the hope that their generation next will be able to climb up the ladder a few steps by availing the facilities like schooling & health care as provided for by the multi-national enterprise? The Corona pandemic & the exposed game of the CCP, the supply chains are being shifted out of China to places like Vietnam South Korea and India. The fact that many airports are being built in the state of UP is the pointer towards the things to come. The technology is going to shape the destiny of the people who hitherto were unconnected with the ‘modern world’. More than the employment generation, it’s that distant hope that this infrastructure generates in the minds of ‘not so well to do’ class that one day their siblings will also make it to such ‘temples’ of knowledge & this may lead to parents spending more on their children to get quality education. When Yogi and Modi call it Vikas in Janhit; everybody not only nods in agreement, but also shower praises on the duo for their commitment to development of their state.

For the leadership who continues to be inspired by the economic development paradigm of those who colonized and tormented us for more than 200 years, what processes can be thought of that may give birth to a leadership that decisively challenges the extant one? Or, by what mechanism/ people’s participation can an equilibrium point be reached between the usage of technology and empowerment of people? How to evolve a dispensation which doesn’t allow Technology to enslave/marginalise people to the point of them becoming irrelevant to the dynamics of the society they are a part of? Can a set up be envisaged where ‘Man the Maker’ is supreme & its progeny does not devour it?

Farmers’ Movement:    

Sorry, but Rakesh Tikait has lost his way. Sure, he did not understand the political import of his demand: “Repeal All Laws. No Negotiation”. He further ceased to be a farmer leader when he started campaigning for & against a political party. His panchayat with farmers in Bengal, I thought was a good step forward. Media criticised him by belittling his effort, citing the numbers present in the meeting; not impressed by 500! However, numbers never matter as it’s the Idea/Thought that mobilises people. If he could communicate to Bengal farmers the essence of his demand, then those present are bound to discuss with others in their fraternity for the idea to grow further & gain acceptability within a larger cross section of them. His idea to hold panchayats in different states was, in my opinion, a very unique initiative, but his seeking votes for a political party in Bengal may have exposed him to the charge of being anti BJP and he unwittingly gave a huge handle to the media to expose him as a political agent & not a farmer leader. Curtains closed.

I have always believed that the farmers alone have the capacity to redefine politics, social relationships and economic model of growth, but again they too look outwards instead of looking inwards. Al along during their agitations/movements they have failed to present themselves as leaders of a socio economic group and while earlier they used to be One with each other, in gross terms, across the country on their demands; this time around that kind of unity is found lacking as is borne by the fact that in the government appointed committee under the directive of the SC had one of its members from Shetkari Sangathana! Unless I missed out on the statements made by farmer leaders in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Rajasthan etc; I did not come across any such statement(s) opposing the laws. In fact within UP, many farmers have spoken against Tikait & even questioned his credentials as a farmer!  

However, farmers across the country are part of the panchayats and as food producers may be having a say in the affairs of the panchayats. I think that it is through those panchayats that the farmers collectively can set up a political agenda associated with the socioeconomic one, if only they can rise above caste considerations and various other professional discriminations. Likes of Tikait may end up serving a better cause than siding with one political party or the other as all the parties are votaries of a highly exploitative socio economic and political system.